RADAR- A device which, by measuring the time interval between transmission and reception of radio pulses and correlating the angular orientation of the radiated antenna beam or beams in azimuth and/or elevation, provides information on range, azimuth, and/or elevation of objects in the path of the transmitted pulses.
RADAR [ICAO]- A radio detection device which provides information on range, azimuth and/or elevation of objects.
RADAR ADVISORY- The provision of advice and information based on radar observations.
RADAR APPROACH- An instrument approach procedure which utilizes Precision Approach Radar (PAR) or Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR).
RADAR APPROACH [ICAO]- An approach, executed by an aircraft, under the direction of a radar controller.
RADAR APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY- A terminal ATC facility that uses radar and nonradar capabilities to provide approach control services to aircraft arriving, departing, or transiting airspace controlled by the facility.
RADAR ARRIVAL- An aircraft arriving at an airport served by a radar facility and in radar contact with the facility.
RADAR CLUTTER [ICAO]- The visual indication on a radar display of unwanted signals.
RADAR CONTACT [ICAO]- The situation which exists when the radar blip or radar position symbol of a particular aircraft is seen and identified on a radar display.
RADAR CONTACT LOST- Used by ATC to inform a pilot that radar data used to determine the aircraft's position is no longer being received, or is no longer reliable and radar service is no longer being provided. The loss may be attributed to several factors including the aircraft merging with weather or ground clutter, the aircraft operating below radar line of sight coverage, the aircraft entering an area of poor radar return, failure of the aircraft transponder, or failure of the ground radar equipment.
RADAR ENVIRONMENT- An area in which radar service may be provided.
RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING- The observation of the progress of radar identified aircraft, whose primary navigation is being provided by the pilot, wherein the controller retains and correlates the aircraft identity with the appropriate target or target symbol displayed on the radar scope.
RADAR IDENTIFICATION- The process of ascertaining that an observed radar target is the radar return from a particular aircraft.
RADAR IDENTIFICATION [ICAO]- The process of correlating a particular radar blip or radar position symbol with a specific aircraft.
RADAR IDENTIFIED AIRCRAFT- An aircraft, the position of which has been correlated with an observed target or symbol on the radar display.
RADAR NAVIGATIONAL GUIDANCE-
RADAR POINT OUT- An action taken by a controller to transfer the radar identification of an aircraft to another controller if the aircraft will or may enter the airspace or protected airspace of another controller and radio communications will not be transferred.
RADAR REQUIRED- A term displayed on charts and approach plates and included in FDC NOTAMs to alert pilots that segments of either an instrument approach procedure or a route are not navigable because of either the absence or unusability of a NAVAID. The pilot can expect to be provided radar navigational guidance while transiting segments labeled with this term.
RADAR ROUTE- A flight path or route over which an aircraft is vectored. Navigational guidance and altitude assignments are provided by ATC.
RADAR SERVICE- A term which encompasses one or more of the following services based on the use of radar which can be provided by a controller to a pilot of a radar identified aircraft.
RADAR SERVICE [ICAO]- Term used to indicate a service provided directly by means of radar.
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED- Used by ATC to inform a pilot that he/she will no longer be provided any of the services that could be received while in radar contact. Radar service is automatically terminated, and the pilot is not advised in the following cases:
RADAR SURVEILLANCE- The radar observation of a given geographical area for the purpose of performing some radar function.
RADAR TRAFFIC ADVISORIES- Advisories issued to alert pilots to known or observed radar traffic which may affect the intended route of flight of their aircraft.
RADAR TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE-
RADAR VECTORING [ICAO]- Provision of navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of specific headings, based on the use of radar.
RADAR WEATHER ECHO INTENSITY LEVELS- Existing radar systems cannot detect turbulence. However, there is a direct correlation between the degree of turbulence and other weather features associated with thunderstorms and the radar weather echo intensity. The National Weather Service has categorized radar weather echo intensity for precipitation into six levels. These levels are sometimes expressed during communications as "VIP LEVEL" 1 through 6 (derived from the component of the radar that produces the information- Video Integrator and Processor). The following list gives the "VIP LEVELS" in relation to the precipitation intensity within a thunderstorm:
(Refer to AC 00-45, Aviation Weather Services.)
RADIAL- A magnetic bearing extending from a VOR/VORTAC/TACAN navigation facility.
RADIO ALTIMETER- Aircraft equipment which makes use of the reflection of radio waves from the ground to determine the height of the aircraft above the surface.
RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING-
RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR- An aircraft navigational instrument coupled with a gyro compass or similar compass that indicates the direction of a selected NAVAID and indicates bearing with respect to the heading of the aircraft.
RANDOM ALTITUDE- An altitude inappropriate for direction of flight and/or not in accordance with FAAO 7110.65, Para 4-5-1, VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMA.
RANDOM ROUTE- Any route not established or charted/published or not otherwise available to all users.
READ BACK- Repeat my message back to me.
RECEIVER AUTONOMOUS INTEGRITY MONITORING (RAIM)- A technique whereby a civil GNSS receiver/processor determines the integrity of the GNSS navigation signals without reference to sensors or non-DoD integrity systems other than the receiver itself. This determination is achieved by a consistency check among redundant pseudorange measurements.
RECEIVING CONTROLLER- A controller/facility receiving control of an aircraft from another controller/facility.
RECONFORMANCE- The automated process of bringing an aircraft's Current Plan Trajectory into conformance with its track.
REDUCE SPEED TO (SPEED)-
RELEASE TIME- A departure time restriction issued to a pilot by ATC (either directly or through an authorized relay) when necessary to separate a departing aircraft from other traffic.
RELEASE TIME [ICAO]- Time prior to which an aircraft should be given further clearance or prior to which it should not proceed in case of radio failure.
REMOTE AIRPORT ADVISORY (RAA)- A remote service which may be provided by facilities, which are not located on the landing airport, but have ground-to-air communication on frequency 123.6 or 123.65 or tower frequency when the tower is closed, automated weather reporting with voice available to the pilot at the landing airport, and a continuous ASOS/AWOS data display, other direct reading instruments, or manual observation is available to the AFSS specialist.
REMOTE AIRPORT INFORMATION SERVICE (RAIS)- A temporary service provided by facilities, which are not located on the landing airport, but have communication capability and automated weather reporting available to the pilot at the landing airport.
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS AIR/GROUND FACILITY- An unmanned VHF/UHF transmitter/receiver facility which is used to expand ARTCC air/ground communications coverage and to facilitate direct contact between pilots and controllers. RCAG facilities are sometimes not equipped with emergency frequencies 121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz.
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET- An unmanned communications facility remotely controlled by air traffic personnel. RCOs serve FSSs. RTRs serve terminal ATC facilities. An RCO or RTR may be UHF or VHF and will extend the communication range of the air traffic facility. There are several classes of RCOs and RTRs. The class is determined by the number of transmitters or receivers. Classes A through G are used primarily for air/ground purposes. RCO and RTR class O facilities are nonprotected outlets subject to undetected and prolonged outages. RCO (O's) and RTR (O's) were established for the express purpose of providing ground-to-ground communications between air traffic control specialists and pilots located at a satellite airport for delivering en route clearances, issuing departure authorizations, and acknowledging instrument flight rules cancellations or departure/landing times. As a secondary function, they may be used for advisory purposes whenever the aircraft is below the coverage of the primary air/ground frequency.
REPORT- Used to instruct pilots to advise ATC of specified information; e.g., "Report passing Hamilton VOR."
REPORTING POINT- A geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft is reported.
REPORTING POINT [ICAO]- A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of an aircraft can be reported.
REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE- Used by pilots to request that the entire route of flight be read verbatim in an ATC clearance. Such request should be made to preclude receiving an ATC clearance based on the original filed flight plan when a filed IFR flight plan has been revised by the pilot, company, or operations prior to departure.
REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE (RNP)- A statement of the navigational performance necessary for operation within a defined airspace. The following terms are commonly associated with RNP:
RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER- A search and rescue (SAR) facility equipped and manned to coordinate and control SAR operations in an area designated by the SAR plan. The U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Air Force have responsibility for the operation of RCCs.
RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE [ICAO]- A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of search and rescue service and for coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations within a search and rescue region.
RESOLUTION ADVISORY-A display indication given to the pilot by the traffic alert and collision avoidance systems (TCAS II) recommending a maneuver to increase vertical separation relative to an intruding aircraft. Positive, negative, and vertical speed limit (VSL) advisories constitute the resolution advisories. A resolution advisory is also classified as corrective or preventive
RESTRICTED AREA [ICAO]- An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions.
RESUME NORMAL SPEED- Used by ATC to advise a pilot that previously issued speed control restrictions are deleted. An instruction to "resume normal speed" does not delete speed restrictions that are applicable to published procedures of upcoming segments of flight, unless specifically stated by ATC. This does not relieve the pilot of those speed restrictions which are applicable to 14 CFR Section 91.117.
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION- Used by ATC to advise a pilot to resume his/her own navigational responsibility. It is issued after completion of a radar vector or when radar contact is lost while the aircraft is being radar vectored.
RNAV APPROACH- An instrument approach procedure which relies on aircraft area navigation equipment for navigational guidance.
ROAD RECONNAISSANCE- Military activity requiring navigation along roads, railroads, and rivers. Reconnaissance route/route segments are seldom along a straight line and normally require a lateral route width of 10 NM to 30 NM and an altitude range of 500 feet to 10,000 feet AGL.
ROGER- I have received all of your last transmission. It should not be used to answer a question requiring a yes or a no answer.
ROUTE- A defined path, consisting of one or more courses in a horizontal plane, which aircraft traverse over the surface of the earth.
ROUTE ACTION NOTIFICATION- URET notification that a PAR/PDR/PDAR has been applied to the flight plan.
ROUTE SEGMENT- As used in Air Traffic Control, a part of a route that can be defined by two navigational fixes, two NAVAIDs, or a fix and a NAVAID.
ROUTE SEGMENT [ICAO]- A portion of a route to be flown, as defined by two consecutive significant points specified in a flight plan.
RUNWAY- A defined rectangular area on a land airport prepared for the landing and takeoff run of aircraft along its length. Runways are normally numbered in relation to their magnetic direction rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees; e.g., Runway 1, Runway 25.
RUNWAY [ICAO]- A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft.
RUNWAY CENTERLINE LIGHTING-
RUNWAY CONDITION READING- Numerical decelerometer readings relayed by air traffic controllers at USAF and certain civil bases for use by the pilot in determining runway braking action. These readings are routinely relayed only to USAF and Air National Guard Aircraft.
RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS-
RUNWAY GRADIENT- The average slope, measured in percent, between two ends or points on a runway. Runway gradient is depicted on Government aerodrome sketches when total runway gradient exceeds 0.3%.
RUNWAY HEADING- The magnetic direction that corresponds with the runway centerline extended, not the painted runway number. When cleared to "fly or maintain runway heading," pilots are expected to fly or maintain the heading that corresponds with the extended centerline of the departure runway. Drift correction shall not be applied; e.g., Runway 4, actual magnetic heading of the runway centerline 044, fly 044.
RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY RUNWAY- Any runway or runways currently being used for takeoff or landing. When multiple runways are used, they are all considered active runways. In the metering sense, a selectable adapted item which specifies the landing runway configuration or direction of traffic flow. The adapted optimum flight plan from each transition fix to the vertex is determined by the runway configuration for arrival metering processing purposes.
RUNWAY OVERRUN- In military aviation exclusively, a stabilized or paved area beyond the end of a runway, of the same width as the runway plus shoulders, centered on the extended runway centerline.
RUNWAY PROFILE DESCENT- An instrument flight rules (IFR) air traffic control arrival procedure to a runway published for pilot use in graphic and/or textual form and may be associated with a STAR. Runway Profile Descents provide routing and may depict crossing altitudes, speed restrictions, and headings to be flown from the en route structure to the point where the pilot will receive clearance for and execute an instrument approach procedure. A Runway Profile Descent may apply to more than one runway if so stated on the chart.
RUNWAY SAFETY AREA- A defined surface surrounding the runway prepared, or suitable, for reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the runway. The dimensions of the RSA vary and can be determined by using the criteria contained within AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Chapter 3. Figure 3-1 in AC 150/5300-13 depicts the RSA. The design standards dictate that the RSA shall be:
(Refer to AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Chapter 3.)
RUNWAY USE PROGRAM- A noise abatement runway selection plan designed to enhance noise abatement efforts with regard to airport communities for arriving and departing aircraft. These plans are developed into runway use programs and apply to all turbojet aircraft 12,500 pounds or heavier; turbojet aircraft less than 12,500 pounds are included only if the airport proprietor determines that the aircraft creates a noise problem. Runway use programs are coordinated with FAA offices, and safety criteria used in these programs are developed by the Office of Flight Operations. Runway use programs are administered by the Air Traffic Service as "Formal" or "Informal" programs.
RUNWAY VISIBILITY VALUE-
RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE-