DANGER AREA [ICAO]- An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times.
Note: The term "Danger Area" is not used in reference to areas within the United States or any of its possessions or territories.
DEAD RECKONING- Dead reckoning, as applied to flying, is the navigation of an airplane solely by means of computations based on airspeed, course, heading, wind direction, and speed, groundspeed, and elapsed time.
DECISION ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT [ICAO]- A specified altitude or height (A/H) in the precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established.
Note 1: Decision altitude [DA] is referenced to mean sea level [MSL] and decision height [DH] is referenced to the threshold elevation.
Note 2: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the approach area which should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have made an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation to the desired flight path.
DECISION HEIGHT- With respect to the operation of aircraft, means the height at which a decision must be made during an ILS, MLS, or PAR instrument approach to either continue the approach or to execute a missed approach.
DECODER- The device used to decipher signals received from ATCRBS transponders to effect their display as select codes.
DEFENSE VISUAL FLIGHT RULES- Rules applicable to flights within an ADIZ conducted under the visual flight rules in 14 CFR Part 91.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 99.)
DELAY ASSIGNMENT (DAS)- Delays are distributed to aircraft based on the Ground Delay Program parameters. The delay assignment is calculated in 15-minute increments and appears as a table in ETMS.
DELAY INDEFINITE (REASON IF KNOWN) EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME)- Used by ATC to inform a pilot when an accurate estimate of the delay time and the reason for the delay cannot immediately be determined; e.g., a disabled aircraft on the runway, terminal or center area saturation, weather below landing minimums, etc.
DELAY TIME- The amount of time that the arrival must lose to cross the meter fix at the assigned meter fix time. This is the difference between ACLT and VTA.
DEPARTURE CENTER- The ARTCC having jurisdiction for the airspace that generates a flight to the impacted airport.
DEPARTURE CONTROL- A function of an approach control facility providing air traffic control service for departing IFR and, under certain conditions, VFR aircraft.
DEPARTURE SEQUENCING PROGRAM- A program designed to assist in achieving a specified interval over a common point for departures.
DEPARTURE TIME- The time an aircraft becomes airborne.
DESCENT SPEED ADJUSTMENTS- Speed deceleration calculations made to determine an accurate VTA. These calculations start at the transition point and use arrival speed segments to the vertex.
DESIRED TRACK- The planned or intended track between two waypoints. It is measured in degrees from either magnetic or true north. The instantaneous angle may change from point to point along the great circle track between waypoints.
DETRESFA (DISTRESS PHASE) [ICAO]- The code word used to designate an emergency phase wherein there is reasonable certainty that an aircraft and its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance.
DF APPROACH PROCEDURE- Used under emergency conditions where another instrument approach procedure cannot be executed. DF guidance for an instrument approach is given by ATC facilities with DF capability.
DF FIX- The geographical location of an aircraft obtained by one or more direction finders.
DF GUIDANCE- Headings provided to aircraft by facilities equipped with direction finding equipment. These headings, if followed, will lead the aircraft to a predetermined point such as the DF station or an airport. DF guidance is given to aircraft in distress or to other aircraft which request the service. Practice DF guidance is provided when workload permits.
DIRECT- Straight line flight between two navigational aids, fixes, points, or any combination thereof. When used by pilots in describing off-airway routes, points defining direct route segments become compulsory reporting points unless the aircraft is under radar contact.
DIRECT ALTITUDE AND IDENTITY READOUT- The DAIR System is a modification to the AN/TPX-42 Interrogator System. The Navy has two adaptations of the DAIR System-Carrier Air Traffic Control Direct Altitude and Identification Readout System for Aircraft Carriers and Radar Air Traffic Control Facility Direct Altitude and Identity Readout System for land-based terminal operations. The DAIR detects, tracks, and predicts secondary radar aircraft targets. Targets are displayed by means of computer-generated symbols and alphanumeric characters depicting flight identification, altitude, ground speed, and flight plan data. The DAIR System is capable of interfacing with ARTCCs.
DIRECTION FINDER- A radio receiver equipped with a directional sensing antenna used to take bearings on a radio transmitter. Specialized radio direction finders are used in aircraft as air navigation aids. Others are ground-based, primarily to obtain a "fix" on a pilot requesting orientation assistance or to locate downed aircraft. A location "fix" is established by the intersection of two or more bearing lines plotted on a navigational chart using either two separately located Direction Finders to obtain a fix on an aircraft or by a pilot plotting the bearing indications of his/her DF on two separately located ground-based transmitters, both of which can be identified on his/her chart. UDFs receive signals in the ultra high frequency radio broadcast band; VDFs in the very high frequency band; and UVDFs in both bands. ATC provides DF service at those air traffic control towers and flight service stations listed in the Airport/Facility Directory and the DOD FLIP IFR En Route Supplement.
DISCRETE BEACON CODE-
DISCRETE CODE- As used in the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS), any one of the 4096 selectable Mode 3/A aircraft transponder codes except those ending in zero zero; e.g., discrete codes: 0010, 1201, 2317, 7777; nondiscrete codes: 0100, 1200, 7700. Nondiscrete codes are normally reserved for radar facilities that are not equipped with discrete decoding capability and for other purposes such as emergencies (7700), VFR aircraft (1200), etc.
DISCRETE FREQUENCY- A separate radio frequency for use in direct pilot-controller communications in air traffic control which reduces frequency congestion by controlling the number of aircraft operating on a particular frequency at one time. Discrete frequencies are normally designated for each control sector in en route/terminal ATC facilities. Discrete frequencies are listed in the Airport/Facility Directory and the DOD FLIP IFR En Route Supplement.
DISPLACED THRESHOLD- A threshold that is located at a point on the runway other than the designated beginning of the runway.
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT- Equipment (airborne and ground) used to measure, in nautical miles, the slant range distance of an aircraft from the DME navigational aid.
DISTRESS- A condition of being threatened by serious and/or imminent danger and of requiring immediate assistance.
DIVERSE VECTOR AREA- In a radar environment, that area in which a prescribed departure route is not required as the only suitable route to avoid obstacles. The area in which random radar vectors below the MVA/MIA, established in accordance with the TERPS criteria for diverse departures, obstacles and terrain avoidance, may be issued to departing aircraft.
DIVERSION (DVRSN)- Flights that are required to land at other than their original destination for reasons beyond the control of the pilot/company, e.g. periods of significant weather.
DME FIX- A geographical position determined by reference to a navigational aid which provides distance and azimuth information. It is defined by a specific distance in nautical miles and a radial, azimuth, or course (i.e., localizer) in degrees magnetic from that aid.
DME SEPARATION- Spacing of aircraft in terms of distances (nautical miles) determined by reference to distance measuring equipment (DME).
DOD FLIP- Department of Defense Flight Information Publications used for flight planning, en route, and terminal operations. FLIP is produced by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) for world-wide use. United States Government Flight Information Publications (en route charts and instrument approach procedure charts) are incorporated in DOD FLIP for use in the National Airspace System (NAS).
DOMESTIC AIRSPACE- Airspace which overlies the continental land mass of the United States plus Hawaii and U.S. possessions. Domestic airspace extends to 12 miles offshore.
DOWNBURST- A strong downdraft which induces an outburst of damaging winds on or near the ground. Damaging winds, either straight or curved, are highly divergent. The sizes of downbursts vary from 1/2 mile or less to more than 10 miles. An intense downburst often causes widespread damage. Damaging winds, lasting 5 to 30 minutes, could reach speeds as high as 120 knots.
DRAG CHUTE- A parachute device installed on certain aircraft which is deployed on landing roll to assist in deceleration of the aircraft.
DUE REGARD- A phase of flight wherein an aircraft commander of a State-operated aircraft assumes responsibility to separate his/her aircraft from all other aircraft.
DVFR FLIGHT PLAN- A flight plan filed for a VFR aircraft which intends to operate in airspace within which the ready identification, location, and control of aircraft are required in the interest of national security.
DYNAMIC- Continuous review, evaluation, and change to meet demands.
DYNAMIC RESTRICTIONS- Those restrictions imposed by the local facility on an "as needed" basis to manage unpredictable fluctuations in traffic demands.